了解 7 种常见类型的麦克风

麦克风对于音乐人来说是一件很个人的物品,在选择时往往要考虑多种因素。在品类繁多的麦克风里,也并没有「某种麦克风是最好的」之类的定理。每个类型的麦克风都有他们独特的性质和用途,产生的声音质感也不相同。下面我们就来了解一下常见的 7 种麦克风。

Spotlight_0715_01

动圈麦克风

「动圈」的含义是,与振膜紧密相连的导线线圈根据声压变化在磁场中不断运动,从而产生与声波振幅呈等比例变化的电流,这样,声学信号就转换成了电信号。

动圈麦克风的线圈切割磁场直接产生电流,因而动圈麦不需要供电。动圈麦克风的优势在于它的简单和皮实。缺点是由于被导线线圈「拖累」,振膜对于快速变化的声波的响应速度不如其他类型的麦克风。

让动圈麦克风去拾取擦片极具能量的高频部分实属强人所难,但在拾取结实的底鼓或军鼓音色时,动圈麦克风可以有让人满意的表现。动圈麦克风也常常被用来录电吉他音箱出来的声音。

动圈麦克风经常被用于人声录音,这很大程度上是一种「传统习俗」。因为以前的电容麦克风又笨重又脆弱。可是尽管现如今专为现场人声设计的电容麦克风比比皆是,它们更昂贵的平均价格往往使得人们更倾向于选择同样能出色完成工作的动圈麦克风。

7-microphone-types-shure-sm58

Shure SM58 动圈麦克风

小振膜电容麦克风

电容麦克风是基于静电学原理设计的,振膜与背板构成一个电容单元,振膜随声波的振动导致其与背板间的电势差改变,从而将声学信号转换为电信号。电容麦克风一般内置放大器,因为电容单元的输出是很微弱的。电容麦克风需要外接 48 V 幻象供电或电池。

选择小振膜电容麦克风的意义在于,那些直径在 12 毫米左右的小振膜对于声波的振动是非常敏感的。振膜做得越大,它对于不正对麦克风的声音的敏感程度越低,且共振产生的音染更明显。

如果你想要的是极为精确的收音效果,那么小振膜电容麦克风就是不二选择。需要注意的是,更精确的声音并不一定就是更令人满意的声音,有时候精确的声音反而听起来不那么具有活力和力量感。不过如果你想要完全真实地记录自然界的声音,小振膜电容麦克风应是你的选择。

7-microphone-types-neumann-km184

Neumann KM184 小振膜电容麦克风

大振膜电容麦克风

以前,麦克风生产商们还不能把振膜做得像现在这般玲珑,当时的所有电容麦克风都应称为「大振膜电容麦克风」。当然并没有一条分界线来界定什么是「大振膜」、什么是「小振膜」。如前所述,12 mm 左右的尺寸可以被称为「小振膜」,而 24 mm 或更大的尺寸就可以算作「大振膜」。购买麦克风的时候我们会发现,有些看起来很大只的麦克风,里面的振膜却出人意料地特别小,所以振膜的尺寸是一个需要我们特别注意的麦克风参数。

大振膜电容麦克风的优点在于它能给你那种录音棚特别推崇的声音——不是最自然的声音,但是声音又厚又温暖,不管录什么声音都感觉十分舒服。

缺点在于,声音的频率越高,大振膜电容麦克风的定向性越来越明显。如果正对麦克风收音,这不是什么问题,但若是用两只麦克风做立体声收音,侧面来的声音有可能会效果不理想。

7-microphone-types-akg-c414

AKG C414 大振膜电容麦克风

真空管麦克风

这类麦克风的设计制造要追溯到电容麦克风时代的早期。那时候由于晶体管还没有大规模普及应用,电容麦克风的内置放大器都是用的真空管。尽管以前有些真空管麦克风搭配的是小振膜,但我们现在见到的真空管麦克风里面大都是大振膜。

真空管麦克风的优点是真空管放大器容易产生一种非常悦耳舒适的失真效果,即「温暖的声音」。对于人声来说,这种温暖的失真感常常被当做灵丹妙药。

和其他种类的麦克风不同,真空管麦克风由于真空管的时代早已过去,已经变得非常抢手,价格也往往居高不下。

7-microphone-types-peluso-22-47

Peluso 22 47 大振膜真空管麦克风

铝带麦克风

铝带麦克风是一种特殊的动圈麦克风。传统的动圈麦克风的振膜上紧密联结着导线线圈,而铝带麦克风就是把振膜和导线线圈合在一起做成了一条铝带(或金属带)。由于铝带非常轻薄,铝带麦克风对声波的敏感程度可以媲美电容麦克风,不过一般铝带麦克风的声音相对较暗。

铝带麦克风可录制出细节清晰但略显黯淡的声音。这使得它们常常在录音棚得到艺术化地运用。

铝带麦克风普遍很脆弱,脆弱到有些牌子的说明书会提醒用户:拿着铝带麦克风收音的时候走路慢点儿以免空气通过麦克风速度太快导致铝带错位。

和动圈麦克风一样,铝带麦克风大部分都不需要外部供电(某些自带内置放大器的除外)。然而铝带麦克风的输出一般都比较小,所以搭配前级放大器使用效果更好。

7-microphone-types-coles-4038

Coles 4038 铝带麦克风

驻极体麦克风

驻极体麦克风是一种特殊的电容麦克风。我们已经知道电容麦克风的原理是电容上极化的电荷量发生改变,从而在电容两端产生电信号,达到声—电信号转换。而驻极体材料是一种在加上电荷后可以永久性保存这些电荷的材料。利用这个原理,振膜或背板上的驻极体材料提供电容单元所需的恒定电压,可省去麦克风的供电部分。不过麦克风内置放大器的工作仍然需要用电池或幻象供电,需要注意的是用电池的驻极体麦克风与用幻象供电的相比,敏感度较差,对最大声压的处理能力也较弱。

驻极体麦克风因其低成本、小型化的特点,在手持设备中得到广泛应用。内部集成FET前置放大器的驻极体麦克风可以提供很高的性能。现在世界上最精确的麦克风中也有很多是驻极体麦克风。

7-microphone-types-dpa-4011

DPA 4011 驻极体麦克风

压电麦克风

压电麦克风也叫晶体麦克风,其原理是利用某些材料的压电效应——即声音造成材料的变形产生电压的变化。

压电麦克风如今主要是以接触式传声器的形式存在,一个典型的例子是吉他拾音器。压电麦克风直接拾取音源的物理振动,而不是空气中的声波震动。其好处是把乐器声与其他声音隔离开来。不过这样拾取的声音不会特别的真实,因而压电麦克风的应用比较局限。

7-microphone-types-fishman-bp-100

Fishman BP-100 贝斯压电拾音器

总结

这就是根据工作原理不同而划分的 7 种类型的麦克风。能够了解它们的基本工作原理、识别它们各自独特的声音是每个音乐制作人必备的本领之一。

本文由 Soundmono 编译自 AudioMasterClass

你也许喜欢...

24 条回复

  1. Kendrick说道:

    I am curious to find out what blog platform you’re using?
    I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my latest
    website and I’d like to find something more secure. Do you
    have any recommendations?

  2. Josette说道:

    It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some
    interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you can write next
    articles referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!

  3. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your site.
    You have some really great articles and I feel I would be
    a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the
    load off, I’d love to write some content for your blog in exchange
    for a link back to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested.

    Thank you!

  4. I simply couldn’t leave your website prior to suggesting that I extremely
    loved the standard info a person supply for your visitors?

    Is gonna be back regularly to inspect new posts

  5. Wow, marvelous blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?

    you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is wonderful,
    as well as the content!

  6. It’s an amazing article designed for all the web viewers; they will obtain benefit
    from it I am sure.

  7. I love what you guys are up too. Such clever work and reporting!
    Keep up the great works guys I’ve included you
    guys to my own blogroll.

  8. Thanks a lot on your big posting! My spouse and i quite liked reading the simple fact that, you are a very good author.
    My goal is always to make certain to bookmark
    your site and will generally come back later on. I want to really encourage
    one to keep going your great posts, end up with a
    very good morning!

  9. Bless you on your superb posting! My spouse i also quite adored
    reading the fact that, you are a terrific author. Virtually no in the
    future than this kind of make certain to bookmark your web site and will generally come
    back from now on. I want to encourage one to keep going your fantastic posts,
    have got a good morning!

  10. Randy说道:

    I was suggested this web site by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post
    is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my trouble.
    You’re wonderful! Thanks!

  11. web hosting a说道:

    Very good site you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics talked
    about here? I’d really like to be a part of community where I can get feedback from other knowledgeable individuals that share
    the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know.
    Bless you!

  12. j.mp说道:

    I am genuinely happy to glance at this weblog posts which carries lots of
    valuable data, thanks for providing these data.

  13. j.mp说道:

    Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your
    stuff previous to and you’re just extremely excellent.
    I really like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you’re stating and the way
    in which you say it. You make it entertaining
    and you still care for to keep it sensible. I cant wait to
    read far more from you. This is actually a terrific site.

  14. Spot on with this write-up, I truly feel this site needs far more
    attention. I’ll probably be back again to see more, thanks for the information!

  15. Benito说道:

    If some one wants to be updated with latest technologies after that he must
    be visit this web site and be up to date daily.

  16. asmr when说道:

    Whoa! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a completely different topic but it has pretty much the same page layout and
    design. Great choice of colors!

  17. bit.ly说道:

    Hi everyone, it’s my first go to see at this web site, and post is actually fruitful for me,
    keep up posting these articles.

  18. my asmr说道:

    It’s very trouble-free to find out any topic on net as compared to textbooks, as I
    found this piece of writing at this web page.

  19. Hey great blog! Does running a blog similar to this require a large amount of work?
    I have virtually no expertise in programming however I
    was hoping to start my own blog in the near future. Anyways, if you have any ideas or techniques for new blog
    owners please share. I understand this is off subject nevertheless I simply wanted to ask.
    Many thanks!

  20. ps4 games it说道:

    You actually make it appear so easy together with your presentation but I to find this matter
    to be really something which I believe I might by
    no means understand. It seems too complex and
    very broad for me. I’m looking ahead to your next
    post, I will attempt to get the cling of it!

  21. but ps4 games说道:

    Hi, just wanted to mention, I enjoyed this post. It was helpful.
    Keep on posting!

  22. Bruno说道:

    What’s up colleagues, fastidious post and fastidious
    arguments commented at this place, I am in fact enjoying by these.

  23. Joann Sanderfur说道:

    Hi there to every one, the contents existing at this website are in fact awesome for people knowledge, well, keep up the nice work fellows.|

  24. Blake Delrosario说道:

    Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based upon on the same ideas you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.|

发表评论

邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注