如何用 Logic 修正音准

Auto-Tune 效果已被越来越多的制作人所采用,其基本功能就是修正人声的音准。以合适的方式使用,歌手的声音将得到显著提升,然而过量使用也会带来一些麻烦。这篇文章将介绍如何使用 Logic Pro X 自带的 Auto-Tune 效果。

什么是 Auto-Tune

根据 Google 词典的定义,「Auto-Tune 是通过一些设备或工具来自动调整音高,有时特指某款进行人声音准修正的计算机软件。」

我认为,除了应该了解这个概念之外,还需要区分 Auto-Tune 和 Pitch Correction(以下均为「音准修正」)的区别。Auto-Tune 是一款由 Antares 开发的软件,并且 Auto-Tune 这个名字随着该软件的发布而被广泛认识。

另一个需要搞清楚的是音准修正和 Voice Transformation 的区别。音准修正往往就是 Auto-Tune 的代称(不过现在你应该知道它只是代称,不是 Auto-Tune 本身),而 Voice Transformation 通常是指将一段录音的音高进行整体上移或下移。

以音准修正来举例,当歌手 Katy Perry 的歌声中有一两个字唱走音了,制作人员会修正那几个音高。而 Voice Transformation 的例子则是 will.i.am 的一段正常讲话的声音被整体修改成更高或更低的音调。

前置知识就提这么多,在这篇文章里你要学到的是音准修正的知识。幸而 Logic Pro X 提供了非常方便简洁的方法,有如下三种:

  1. Pitch Correction 工具:让音高更准确的最简单方法
  2. Flex Pitch:Logic Pro X 中新增的强大修音工具,用来细调歌手的音准
  3. 三方插件:例如 Antares Auto-Tune 等插件

谁需要使用 Auto-Tune?

简要回答的话就是「音乐行业里的多数人」。尽管有些歌手是特例,比如 Cher 和 Akon 大量使用机器人效果的音高处理,但绝大多数音乐人例如 Lady Gaga 等就只是最低限度地使用音准修正,仅仅修正轻微的跑调,从而使本就十分优秀的声音更加出彩。

如果你还想知道有哪些歌手使用了 Auto-Tune,请参照这个列表

Logic 的 Pitch Correction 工具

使用 Logic 自带的 Pitch Correction 工具能够在最短的时间内达到粗略修音的目的。下面我们来讨论一下如何使用这款工具。我们在 Free Vocals 下载了一条干声作为演示素材。

第一步

录制或导入一段需要修正的人声,并裁切到合适的长度。

1

在 Logic 中录制并裁切

第二步

在通道条的音频 FX 菜单中选择 Pitch -> Pitch Correction。

2

在 Logic 中启用 Pitch Correction 效果器

第三步

现在你将看到一个蓝灰色界面的窗口,中间是一个小型的键盘,周围有一些按钮和滑杆。首先要做的是确定调性,你可以点亮/熄灭键盘上的某些音,也可以从 Root 和 Scale 菜单中直接选择。

3

Logic 自带的 Pitch Correction 工具

第四步

下一步,在「Range」区域选择人声是 Normal(高音)还是 Low(低音)。大部分情况而言,男声通常选 Low,女声通常选 Normal。

4

Pitch Correction 工具中的 Normal 和 Low 选项

第五步

播放音轨试听效果。你应该可以注意到人声当中已经有了一些轻微的修正。接下来你要使用 Response(响应时间)和 Detune(失谐)滑杆来让修音更加自然。

第六步

Response 响应时间越低,修音效果就越容易被察觉。你需要在准确的音高和机器人式的声音之间找到一个平衡点。

第七步

最后,观察 Correction Amount(修音量)指示条,如果人声总是高于或低于中央的 0 点,则需要稍微调节 Detune 滑杆来进行完善。

第八步

至此,总体音准修正已经有了足够的效果。高阶用户还可以通过自动化控制,在歌曲的不同位置增加或减少修音参数。

用 Flex Pitch 来修正音准

Flex Pitch 的强大之处在于可以对人声进行逐字的音准修正。虽然这个领域已有 Melodyne 和 Waves Tune 等前辈,然而 Logic Pro X 内置的 Flex Pitch 在界面的友好度和易用性上有过之而无不及,基本功能方面也不输二者。

在使用 Flex Pitch 之前请注意,如果你参照本文前一部分使用了 Pitch Correction 工具,请先将其禁用。你可以点按音频 FX 列表左边的电源按钮将其变为灰色,也可以点按右边的下拉箭头并选择「没有插件」。

第一步

首先点按多轨编辑区的「显示/隐藏 Flex」按钮,启用轨道的 Flex 模式。

5

在 Logic 中启用 Flex 模式

第二步

在菜单中选择 Flex Pitch 模式,等待几秒钟让 Logic 完成初始化。

6

Logic 中的多种 Flex 模式

第三步

现在音轨上就出现了一些蓝色的区域。这表示当前音轨启用了 Flex Pitch 模式,以及每个字音上的修正量。

7

Flex Pitch 已启用

第四步

点按工具条上的剪刀按钮来打开轨道编辑器,观察一下钢琴卷帘中各个字音的当前分布。

8

打开 Logic 的轨道编辑器

第五步

现在就可以自由上下拖移每一个字音了。这样精修以后你将得到一条音准非常完美的人声。

9

在 Logic 的 Flex Pitch 中拖移字音

最后

你已经掌握了 Flex Pitch 的基本操作。要更深入学习 Flex Pitch 音准修正工具的知识,请参考《用 Logic Pro X 的 Flex 工具进行创作》(稍后更新)。

Antares Auto-Tune 7

正如我在文章开头所讲的,人们往往会把 Antares 出品的名为「Auto-Tune」的软件和「Auto-Tune(自动音准)」这两个概念搞混。这款软件与 Logic 自带的 Pitch Correction 工具相比更加复杂和专业化,可控制的参数更加丰富。请参考 Antares 的网站来获取更多 Antares Auto-Tune 的信息。本文将不再赘述。

总结

毫无疑问,Logic Pro X 内置的工具就能让人声获得精准的音高,使声音更加动听。但更加确信无疑的是,再好的音准修正软件和处理,都是无法与一名足够优秀的歌手相媲美的。

本文由 Soundmono 编译自 Tuts+

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