Logic Pro X 系列教程 12:母带处理

最新版的 Logic Pro X 内置的 Channel EQ 插件包含大量改进。Mark Cousins 将告诉你如何将它运用在母带工作中。

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对于母带而言,均衡器(EQ)无疑是效果器里的重中之重。EQ 不仅要做出好听的声音,而且更需要成为母带中的多面手,把那个「神奇的音响」用到混音中最正确的地方。

EQ 不仅要具备足够数量的多频段控制、滤波选项、搁架控制,还要提供左右声道分离控制的功能。如果你具备足够的挑战心,可能还需要 M/S 处理的特性。不止于此,可能还会需要能够在线性相位(Linear Phase)EQ 和可靠的老式「相位偏移」EQ 之间进行选择。显然,母带过程中对于 EQ 的需求是纷繁多样的。

Channel EQ 不仅是混音工具,更是母带处理中高效的多面手,非常值得深入了解。

最新版的 Logic Pro X 有着焕然一新的外观和更强大的功能,而自带的 Channel EQ 和 Linear Phase EQ 插件也更是成为了母带工作中的强者。这篇文章将带你深入了解如何使用 Channel EQ 和 Linear Phase EQ 插件进行母带处理,学习较通常的混音实践更为不同的 EQ 操作。

Channel EQ 最激动人心的功能当属 M/S 均衡,也就是「中部/侧面」式立体声,而不是传统的左/右式立体声。M/S 技术虽然在母带圈当中享有越来越高的声誉,但也正因为它独特的立体声处理方式使得刚接触它的人容易产生一些误解。简单地说,M/S 立体声会将混音分为中部(从左右声道的汇总当中得出)以及侧面(由左右声道的差别中得出)。从作用上来看,这个技术使得 EQ 更加直截了当,尤其对于那些被放置在「幻象中心」的乐器。

解读:插件链接

插件链接模式按钮在插件窗口的右上角,在母带过程中非常实用。链接模式启用时,插件窗口会随着你在不同轨道之间切换,自动显示所在轨道的相同效果插槽位的插件内容。你可以把需要进行对比的插件分配在同一个插槽位上,例如所有 EQ 都在插槽 1,压缩都在插槽 2 等,然后快速从一首歌转到另一首进行对比,而无需关闭又打开各自的插件窗口。这个技巧在需要进行不间断监听,调整均衡和响度时尤为重要。

这篇教程得到了英国 Point Blank 音乐学校的支持。

启程

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1、在多数母带信号路径里,Channel EQ 往往是处理序列当中的第一位,后边会有压缩器和限制器。在添加 Channel EQ 插件以后,记得打开底部的扩展参数并勾选 Oversampling,以获得最高音质。

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2、在均衡处理工作中,Channel EQ 的 Analyzer(分析器)能告诉你更多频率特性上的信息。点按 Analyzer 激活它,在扩展参数中选择 Resolution Medium 或 Resolution High 来获得更精确、更细致的频率概况。

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3、Analyzer Decay 是个很有趣的参数,默认值是 10dB/s。设置为较低速度(甚至低到 0dB/s),能够产生较缓的「Averaged(均值)」频率概况,而不是瞬态显示。这个功能可以帮助你理解当前音轨的宽广频率特性。

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4、我们先从音轨的低频部分起手。为了得到更好的控制,你可以使用高通滤波,以去除次低频的干扰。点亮左上角的高通滤波器按钮,将曲线调整到最陡,即 48dB/Oct,并把频率控制点放置在 20-30Hz 上。

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5、高通滤波器的另一个技巧是可以用它添加共鸣,对应的参数就是 Q 值,位于频率点和斜度参数的下边。将该值增加到 1.00 就能看到频率切分点处有一个小鼓包。你可以增加一些 Q 值来稍稍提升切分点。适当使用可以得到更紧实和厚重的贝司。

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6、在均衡器的两端,即低频和高频端,搁架式均衡可以用来确定轨道的宽频特性。仔细斟酌它们各自的参数,以得到不同的频率色彩。比如,在 7kHz 处进行提升可以增加临场感,而在 12-16kHz 处提升会增加「空气感」。

Q 值和 Linear Phase EQ

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1、谈到高通滤波,就有必要提及如何在实践中善用 Q 值。对于搁架滤波,Q 值越小曲线越宽平,而不是丘陵形状。曲线和经典的 Baxandall EQ 很相似。Baxandall EQ 是很多母带工程师偏爱的效果器,得益于它在频率设定中让高频平缓提升的特性。

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2、在接下来的混音当中,音色修整依靠 4 个参量均衡器来实现。整体而言,最好的方向是提升时使用较宽的 Q 值,衰减时用较窄的 Q 值。如果耳朵已经听不出来 EQ 的痕迹,而作品又具有音乐性的效果就说明方向是正确的。

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3、Q-Couple 是个值得注意的功能。默认情况下,当你提升或衰减某个频段的增益时,Q 值会变得更锋利,使得 EQ 的频段各自保持固定的增益和衰减量。Q-Couple 能够让 EQ 以更加具有音乐性的方式工作,因此保留默认设置就可以了。

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4、无论进行怎样的均衡调整,最后的结果都会使信号电平被稍许提升。因此为了保持整体的增益结构,并保持未经 EQ 的声源的客观性,应当考虑用右边的 Gain(增益)拉杆来修正整体增益平衡。

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5、除了 Channel EQ,Logic Pro X 还内置了一个 Linear Phase EQ 均衡器。你可以直接从 Channel EQ 切换成 Linear Phase EQ 并保持设置不变,非常方便将两个插件的声音进行对比。请多多对比 Linear Phase EQ 所带来的通透感的提升。

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6、有时,更加「直达」地处理 EQ 比整体处理效果更好,也就是通过改变 Processing 参数,把 EQ 效果加到指定的左或右声道中。不妨试试在 Left Only(仅左声道)模式下提升一些高频,并留意 Hi-Hat 镲的变化更加清晰可闻,从而避免过多的高频。

中部和侧面处理

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1、如果你使用 Channel EQ 进行 Left Only(仅左声道)模式处理,也许就需要再加载一个 Channel EQ 并设置为 Right Only(仅右声道)。这样,就可以对左右声道的 EQ 进行分别控制,而不再是笼统论之。

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2、在分别对左、右声道进行处理之外,你还可以尝试 M/S 处理方式。加载两个 Channel EQ 插件,分别设置为 Mid Only(仅中部)和 Side Only(仅侧面)就可以得到一个基本的 M/S 矩阵了。在效果器末端插入一个免费的 bx_solo(www.brainworx-music.de)效果器可以将中部和侧面声道进行分离。

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3、按下 bx_solo 的 M Solo 按钮就可以单独听到中部声道的声音。请留意贝司在这个声道的重要地位,在混音当中,它是被固定在中间的。提升一些低频,就可以直接听到底鼓和贝司的加强,同时又能保持侧面声道不受影响。

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4、现在来处理侧面声道,请留意中部声道明显遗漏的内容,例如底鼓和贝司。好的处理策略之一是在侧面声道中对贝司进行低频衰减(如果你想要将低音部分聚集在中部,这一点就极其重要),并提升少许空气感来扩充整个混音的通透度和广度。

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5、Channel EQ 的 M/S 模式配合增益控制(Gain control)会得到很有趣的效果。作为 M/S 矩阵的一部分,增益控制可以用来调整混音的立体声广度。例如,增加中部的增益,并降低一些侧面的增益,则结果会听起来更加中心聚焦化。

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6、如果你要同时打开和关闭 EQ 矩阵的插件窗口,可以使用 Logic Pro X 的「屏幕设置」功能,默认情况下点按菜单栏里的「1」就可以看到它的菜单。屏幕设置可以分配给键盘上的数字键,可以方便地为母带工程里的每一首歌都设置一个按键,可以记住每首歌的 EQ 窗口设置,其实也包括所有处理器窗口。

本文由 Soundmono 编译自 Music Tech

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