五种常见压缩类型与应用方法

API-2500

作为音频工作者,熟用不同的动态范围压缩工具既是时代所需,更是艺术创造里不可或缺的精妙技能。本文将五种常用压缩类型进行了归纳,可供随时参考。

1、多段压缩/限制

多段压缩是指对声音不同频率范围的动态分别进行压缩处理,各段的压缩相互独立,各取所需。例如只需处理底鼓的较高频段,而不破坏低频的动态,你可以选择合适的频段,设置针对该频段的阈值、起音以及释放值。

实用场景:通过主控总线来调整中低频中有问题的部分,或让人声 5-10k 范围的频段更加温和一些。

推荐插件:FabFilter Pro-MB,iZotope Ozone 6,Waves L3-LL Multimaximizer

2、先行压缩(Lookahead Compression)

所谓先行压缩,即分析输入声音信号,并在该信号可闻之前进行处理,从而得到一种独特的瞬变信号处理效果。常规的压缩器都可以用来进行先行压缩,你需要先将音频轨复制到新的轨道中,将新音频轨向前微微拖动,在原始轨上添加压缩器,并将新轨作为侧链(sidechain)的信号源。

实用场景:任何较为突出、瞬变较快的音轨都能适用,在处理军鼓或人声时效果尤佳。

推荐插件:Softtube FET compressor,Waves C1 Compressor 的 Sidechain 模式

3、砖墙限制(Brickwall Limiting)

声明:建议掌握较为全面的混音技能,再考虑在编混中对主轨道使用砖墙压缩。

近十多年来的音乐已逐渐变得越来越大声,而砖墙限制手段与这场「响度之战」息息相关。但砖墙限制本来是有其实在意义的,例如在现场扩音的强化处理和广播音频处理中十分常见。简单来说,就是设定一个上限值之后,可以让音频信号永远保持在不超过这个值的范围内。再通过改变阈值,就能把动态范围中响度较弱的部分提起来。因此,无需过多专业的混音技能,也能做到相对专业的 RMS 响度处理效果。(所以请看前段声明!)

实用场景:母带或母带预处理环节,预先在辅助轨上尽量获得高 RMS 值,再进入主控总线。也可以用在单条轨道上,控制瞬变或塑造音色,和传统压缩器用法基本一致。

推荐插件:FabFilter Pro-L,Waves L2,PSP Xenon

4、侧链压缩(闪避)

侧链压缩对于 EDM(电子舞曲)制作人来说再熟悉不过了,经过底鼓信号侧链处理后的合成器声音也非常容易被听辨出来。简单地讲,侧链压缩就是用一个音频作为信号源,根据它的动态来对另一轨进行压缩处理。侧链的教程如今也是多不胜数,但下边的应用场景同样适合学习掌握。

实用场景:在混音中,用人声去侧链处理鼓组或吉他的动态,使人声在整段音乐中更加突显;用采样来替代或叠加录下来的镲片声;用牛铃或节拍器音色来代替底鼓作为侧链信号源(充分利用节拍器音色极快的起音)。

推荐插件:Softtube CL1B 或 Valley People Dyna-mite,Waves H-Comp 或 API 2500

5、平行压缩(Parallel Compression)

平行压缩(有时也被称为纽约式压缩)技术时下十分热门,它既能保留音频素材的原本、自然的感觉,又能带来压缩处理的各种好处。一种简单的做法是:将音频信号发送到辅助轨(强调一下:用发送,而不是输出),在辅助轨添加压缩器,并反复调节寻找你喜欢的「甜蜜点」。但是要注意延迟补偿设置,以避免出现相位问题。(说点题外话,通过采样延迟,让左右声道产生微弱的不同步,可以做出独特的相位效果)

实用场景:处理高速瞬态变化的声音,如鼓组等。在主控总线上使用平行压缩,也能一定程度上提升 RMS 值。

推荐插件:理论上所有压缩插件都可以用来做平行压缩,不过也有一些插件如 Cytomic 的 The Glue,或 FabFilter 的 Pro-L 本身就提供干/湿调节,基本等同于平行压缩的效果。

本文由 Soundmono 编译自 The Pro Audio Files

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